Comandos de la terminal/grep

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grep

Su nombre deriva de un comando en el editor de texto ed,
escrito también por Ken Thompson y agregado al sistema operativo 
UNIX versión 4 en 1973, 
que tiene la siguiente forma: g/re/p y significa 
«hacer una búsqueda global para las líneas que encajen con 
la expresión regular (regular expression en inglés), e imprimirlas»

grep understands three different versions of regular expression syntax:
       “basic,” “extended” and “perl.” In GNU grep, there is no difference  in
       available  functionality between basic and extended syntaxes. 

grep entiende tres versiones diferentes de la sintaxis de la expresión regular:
"básico", "extendido" y "perl".

[rrc@Pridd ~]$ grep --help
Usage: grep [OPTION]... PATTERN [FILE]...
Search for PATTERN in each FILE or standard input.
PATTERN is, by default, a basic regular expression (BRE).
Example: grep -i 'hello world' menu.h main.c

Regexp selection and interpretation:
  -E, --extended-regexp     PATTERN is an extended regular expression (ERE)
  -F, --fixed-strings       PATTERN is a set of newline-separated fixed strings
  -G, --basic-regexp        PATTERN is a basic regular expression (BRE)
  -P, --perl-regexp         PATTERN is a Perl regular expression
  -e, --regexp=PATTERN      use PATTERN for matching
  -f, --file=FILE           obtain PATTERN from FILE
  -i, --ignore-case         ignore case distinctions
  -w, --word-regexp         force PATTERN to match only whole words
  -x, --line-regexp         force PATTERN to match only whole lines
  -z, --null-data           a data line ends in 0 byte, not newline

Miscellaneous:
  -s, --no-messages         suppress error messages
  -v, --invert-match        select non-matching lines
  -V, --version             print version information and exit
      --help                display this help and exit
      --mmap                deprecated no-op; evokes a warning

Output control:
  -m, --max-count=NUM       stop after NUM matches
  -b, --byte-offset         print the byte offset with output lines
  -n, --line-number         print line number with output lines
      --line-buffered       flush output on every line
  -H, --with-filename       print the file name for each match
  -h, --no-filename         suppress the file name prefix on output
      --label=LABEL         use LABEL as the standard input file name prefix
  -o, --only-matching       show only the part of a line matching PATTERN
  -q, --quiet, --silent     suppress all normal output
      --binary-files=TYPE   assume that binary files are TYPE;
                            TYPE is 'binary', 'text', or 'without-match'
  -a, --text                equivalent to --binary-files=text
  -I                        equivalent to --binary-files=without-match
  -d, --directories=ACTION  how to handle directories;
                            ACTION is 'read', 'recurse', or 'skip'
  -D, --devices=ACTION      how to handle devices, FIFOs and sockets;
                            ACTION is 'read' or 'skip'
  -r, --recursive           like --directories=recurse
  -R, --dereference-recursive  likewise, but follow all symlinks
      --include=FILE_PATTERN  search only files that match FILE_PATTERN
      --exclude=FILE_PATTERN  skip files and directories matching FILE_PATTERN
      --exclude-from=FILE   skip files matching any file pattern from FILE
      --exclude-dir=PATTERN  directories that match PATTERN will be skipped.
  -L, --files-without-match  print only names of FILEs containing no match
  -l, --files-with-matches  print only names of FILEs containing matches
  -c, --count               print only a count of matching lines per FILE
  -T, --initial-tab         make tabs line up (if needed)
  -Z, --null                print 0 byte after FILE name

Context control:
  -B, --before-context=NUM  print NUM lines of leading context
  -A, --after-context=NUM   print NUM lines of trailing context
  -C, --context=NUM         print NUM lines of output context
  -NUM                      same as --context=NUM
      --color[=WHEN],
      --colour[=WHEN]       use markers to highlight the matching strings;
                            WHEN is 'always', 'never', or 'auto'
  -U, --binary              do not strip CR characters at EOL (MSDOS/Windows)
  -u, --unix-byte-offsets   report offsets as if CRs were not there
                            (MSDOS/Windows)

'egrep' means 'grep -E'.  'fgrep' means 'grep -F'.
Direct invocation as either 'egrep' or 'fgrep' is deprecated.
When FILE is -, read standard input.  With no FILE, read . if a command-line
-r is given, - otherwise.  If fewer than two FILEs are given, assume -h.
Exit status is 0 if any line is selected, 1 otherwise;
if any error occurs and -q is not given, the exit status is 2.

Report bugs to: bug-grep@gnu.org
GNU Grep home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/grep/>
General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>

[rrc@Pridd ~]$ grep --version
grep (GNU grep) 2.16
Copyright (C) 2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

Written by Mike Haertel and others, see <http://git.sv.gnu.org/cgit/grep.git/tree/AUTHORS>.

[rrc@Pridd ~]$ cd ComandosDeLaTerminal

[rrc@Pridd ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ grep 2013 ldd
# Copyright (C) 1996-2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
" "2013"

[rrc@Pridd ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ grep 2013 *
grep: bin: Is a directory
grep: Bin: Is a directory
grep: Carpeta1: Is a directory
grep: Carpeta11: Is a directory
grep: Carpeta2: Is a directory
grep: Carpeta21: Is a directory
cdcommand:Script started on Thu 14 Nov 2013 11:38:14 AM CST
cdcommand:-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  368 Jan 26  2013 rsyncMySQLBack*
cdcommand:Script done on Thu 14 Nov 2013 11:40:44 AM CST
grep: ChownPrueba: Is a directory
grep: html: Is a directory
ldd:# Copyright (C) 1996-2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
ldd:" "2013"
grep: linuxcabal.org: Is a directory
grep: log: Permission denied
grep: NuevaCarpeta: Is a directory
grep: NuevaCarpeta2: Is a directory
grep: NuevaCarpeta3: Is a directory
grep: NuevaCarpeta4: Is a directory
grep: NuevaCarpeta5: Is a directory
grep: NuevaCarpeta6: Is a directory
grep: Paginas: Is a directory
grep: richard: Is a directory
ScriptFile:Script started on Thu 14 Nov 2013 04:06:50 PM CST
ScriptFile:Script done on Thu 14 Nov 2013 04:07:59 PM CST
grep: UmaskPruebaCarpeta: Is a directory
grep: UmaskPruebaCarpeta2: Is a directory
grep: usr: Is a directory

[rrc@Pridd ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ grep -d skip 2013 *
cdcommand:Script started on Thu 14 Nov 2013 11:38:14 AM CST
cdcommand:-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  368 Jan 26  2013 rsyncMySQLBack*
cdcommand:Script done on Thu 14 Nov 2013 11:40:44 AM CST
ldd:# Copyright (C) 1996-2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
ldd:" "2013"
grep: log: Permission denied
ScriptFile:Script started on Thu 14 Nov 2013 04:06:50 PM CST
ScriptFile:Script done on Thu 14 Nov 2013 04:07:59 PM CST

[rrc@Pridd ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ grep -d recurse 2013 *
cdcommand:Script started on Thu 14 Nov 2013 11:38:14 AM CST
cdcommand:-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  368 Jan 26  2013 rsyncMySQLBack*
cdcommand:Script done on Thu 14 Nov 2013 11:40:44 AM CST
ldd:# Copyright (C) 1996-2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
ldd:" "2013"
Paginas/ChainingOperators:By Avishek Kumar Under: Bash Shell, Linux Commands On: December 13, 2013
Paginas/PS:Linux   By Silver Moon On Dec 1, 2013 0 Comments    
Paginas/PS:Every 1.0s: ps -e -o pid,uname,cmd,pmem,pcpu --...  Sun Dec  1 18:16:08 2013
Paginas/PS:Last Updated On : 4th December 2013
Paginas/PS:Copyright © 2013 BinaryTides
Paginas/NMAP:By Tarunika Shrivastava Under: Linux Commands On: December 11, 2013
Paginas/NMAP:Starting Nmap 4.11 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2013-11-11 15:42 EST
Paginas/NMAP:Starting Nmap 4.11 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2013-11-18 11:04 EST
 .
 .
 .
Paginas/NMAP:Starting Nmap 4.11 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2013-11-11 18:12 EST
Paginas/NMAP:Starting Nmap 4.11 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2013-11-11 19:01 EST
ScriptFile:Script started on Thu 14 Nov 2013 04:06:50 PM CST
ScriptFile:Script done on Thu 14 Nov 2013 04:07:59 PM CST


[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ grep -d recurse -d skip 2013 *
cdcommand:Script started on Thu 14 Nov 2013 11:38:14 AM CST
cdcommand:-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  368 Jan 26  2013 rsyncMySQLBack*
cdcommand:Script done on Thu 14 Nov 2013 11:40:44 AM CST
ldd:# Copyright (C) 1996-2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
ldd:" "2013"
nohup.out:MPlayer SVN-3.r36361.1.mga4.tainted-4.8.2 (C) 2000-2013 MPlayer Team
V:   0.0 24042/24042 ??% ??% ??,?% 0 0 
ScriptFile:Script started on Thu 14 Nov 2013 04:06:50 PM CST
ScriptFile:Script done on Thu 14 Nov 2013 04:07:59 PM CST
grep: sr0: Permission denied

En RegEx caracteres adentro de '[' y ']' coresponden a un caracter dentro de la lista
de posibilidades. Se permite rangos. entonces [123a-d4567890] es para un caracter a ver
si el esta en la lista de numerales o las letras a, b, c o d
Si escribimos [^123a-d4567890], estamos buscando a un caracter afuera de la lista.

Puedes evaluar un caracter a ver si el es un caracter especial con:
[:alnum:], [:alpha:], [:cntrl:], [:digit:], [:graph:],
[:lower:], [:print:], [:punct:], [:space:], [:upper:], and  [:xdigit:].

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "123Mno..." | grep [[:digit:]]
123Mno...  ---Mira que 123 son en rojo y Mn0... en negro

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "123" | grep  [[:alpha:]]

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "123Mno..." | grep  [[:alpha:]]
123Mno...   ---Mira que 123 son en negro y Mno en rojo y ... en negro

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "123Mno..." | grep  [[:upper:]]
123Mno...   ---Mira que solo el 'M' es en rojo

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "123Mno..." | grep  [[:punct:]]
123Mno...   ---Mira que '...' es en rojo

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "123Mno..." | grep  [[:lower:]n]
123Mno...   ---Mira que solo 'no' son rojos

Para incluir '[' o ']' en la lista, pone le como el primer caracter
Para incluir '^' en la lista pone le después de primer caracter

el '^' afuera de una lista significa el primer caracter en una línea
el '$' afuera de una lista significa el ultimo caracter en una línea

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "123Mno..." | grep ^1
123Mno...   ---Mira que el '1' es en rojo

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "123Mno..." | grep ^3

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "123Mno..." | grep .$
123Mno... ---Mira que solo el ultimo '.' es en rojo

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "123Mno..." | grep o$

El "\?" despues de un caracter coincide a cero o uno de los caracteres.

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "buggy" | grep "bug\?y" 
  El tercer es 'g' pero lo que sigue es 'y' no 'g'

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "buggy" | grep "bug\?gy"
buggy  --- Aquí el tercer es 'g' y los que siguen son 'gy'

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "bugy" | grep "bugg\?y"
bugy  --- El quatro no es 'g' y lo que sigue es 'y' Cero o uno

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "bugy" | grep "bug7\?y"
bugy  --- El quatro no es '7' y lo que sigue es 'y' Cero o uno

El "*" después de un caracter coincide a cero o más de los caracteres caracteres.

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "buggy" | grep "bug*y"
buggy  -- 2 'g' después del 'u' y sigue con 'y'

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "bugy" | grep "bug*y"
bugy   -- 1 'g' después del 'u' y sigue con 'y

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "buy" | grep "bug*y"
buy   -- 0 'g' después del 'u' y sigue con 'y

El "\+" después de un caracter coincide a cero o más de los caracteres caracteres.

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "buggy" | grep "bug\+y"
buggy

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "bugy" | grep "bug\+y"
bugy

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "buy" | grep "bug\+y"

El "{n}" después de un caracter coincide a exactamente n de los caracteres

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "bugggy" | grep "bug\{2\}y"

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "buggy" | grep "bug\{2\}y"
buggy

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "buggy" | grep "bug\{1\}y"

El "{n,}"  después de un caracter coincide a n o más de los caracteres

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "bugggy" | grep "bug\{2,\}y"
bugggy

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "buggy" | grep "bug\{2,\}y"
buggy

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "bugy" | grep "bug\{2,\}y"

El {,m} después de un caracter coincide a no más de m los caracteres en GNU grep
                                          puede ser cero de los caracteres

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "bugggy" | grep "bug\{,2\}y"

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "buggy" | grep "bug\{,2\}y"
buggy

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "bugy" | grep "bug\{,2\}y"
bugy

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "buy" | grep "bug\{,2\}y"
buy

El "{n,m}" después de un caracter coincide al minimo de n los caracteres y
                                          no más de m de los caracteres

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "bugggy" | grep "bug\{1,2\}y"

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "buggy" | grep "bug\{1,2\}y"
buggy

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "bugy" | grep "bug\{1,2\}y"
bugy

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "buy" | grep "bug\{1,2\}y"

el '.' (punto) coincide a cualquier caracter en su posición

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "buggy" | grep "bug.y"
buggy

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "bugly" | grep "bug.y"
bugly

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "bug\y" | grep "bug.y"
bug\y

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "bsg\y" | grep "b.g.y"
bsg\y

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "b8g\y" | grep "b.g.y"
b8g\y

Escapar caracteres especiales para obtener su literal

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "D.Ok." | grep "^[A-Z].*\.$"
D.Ok.

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "DOk." | grep "^[A-Z].*\.$"
DOk.

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "D.Ok" | grep "^[A-Z].*\.$"

Para ver líneas vacias en archivos usa

grep ^$ Nombre de archivo(s)

La frase contiene la palabra La pero no ^La
[rrc@Llawyr ~]$ echo "La frase contiene la palabra La pero no ^La" | grep ^L
La frase contiene la palabra La pero no ^La
^

La frase contiene la palabra La pero no ^La
[rrc@Llawyr ~]$ echo "La frase contiene la palabra La pero no ^La" | grep \^L

La frase contiene la palabra La pero no ^La
[rrc@Llawyr ~]$ echo "La frase contiene la palabra La pero no ^La" | grep \\^L
La frase contiene la palabra La pero no ^La

                                        ^^  
[rrc@Llawyr ~]$ echo "La frase contiene la palabra La pero no ^La" | grep "\^L"
La frase contiene la palabra La pero no ^La
                                        ^^
 
[rrc@Llawyr ~]$ echo "La frase contiene la palabra La pero no ^La" | grep '\^L'
La frase contiene la palabra La pero no ^La
                                        ^^

[rrc@Llawyr ~]$ echo "Que padre no es Que-padre?" | grep "Que[- ]padre"
Que padre no es Que-padre?
^^^^^^^^^       ^^^^^^^^^

Una línea con SOLO la palabra: palabra

[rrc@Llawyr ~]$ echo "La frase contiene la palabra La pero no solo" | grep "^palabra$"

[rrc@Llawyr ~]$ echo "palabra" | grep "^palabra$"
palabra
^^^^^^^
   
El operador '|' (or) en grep extendido ( -E ) & palabras completos (-w)

en vi usamos \< y \> para decir que estamos buscando el patron en palabras completos.
entonces en vi escribimos \<if\> para ver if pero no stiff
en grep podemos hacer lo mismo con -w

[rrc@Llawyr ~]$ echo "stiff if possible" | grep -w if
stiff if possible

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ grep -E -w 'root|rrc' /etc/passwd
root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
rrc:x:500:500:Richard Couture:/home/rrc:/bin/bash

El "^foo$" coincide solo a líneas que tiene solo la palabra "foo"

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "foo" | grep ^foo$
foo

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "2foo" | grep ^foo$

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "foof" | grep ^foo$

el -i

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo UnIx | grep -i unix
UnIx

No tiene AND pero

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "Hola Mundo, cómo esta?" | grep "Mundo" | grep "cómo"
Hola Mundo, cómo esta?

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "Hola Tierra, cómo esta?" | grep "Mundo" | grep "cómo"

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ echo "044-33 337-7505" | grep "[[:digit:]]\{3\}[-][[:digit:]]\{2\}[ ][[:digit:]]\{3\}[-][[:digit:]]\{4\}"
044-33 337-7505

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ grep -d skip 2013 *
cdcommand:Script started on Thu 14 Nov 2013 11:38:14 AM CST
cdcommand:-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  368 Jan 26  2013 rsyncMySQLBack*
cdcommand:Script done on Thu 14 Nov 2013 11:40:44 AM CST
ldd:# Copyright (C) 1996-2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
ldd:" "2013"
nohup.out:MPlayer SVN-3.r36361.1.mga4.tainted-4.8.2 (C) 2000-2013 MPlayer Team
V:   0.0 24042/24042 ??% ??% ??,?% 0 0 
ScriptFile:Script started on Thu 14 Nov 2013 04:06:50 PM CST
ScriptFile:Script done on Thu 14 Nov 2013 04:07:59 PM CST
grep: sr0: Permission denied

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ grep -ld skip 2013 *
cdcommand
ldd
nohup.out
ScriptFile
grep: sr0: Permission denied

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ grep -Ld skip "2013" *
Archivo1DeTres
Archivo2DeTres
Archivo3DeTres
ArchivoDeComando2
ArchivodeTres
ArchivoMV1
ArD
ArDeTres
CatArchivo
CatArchivo2
CatArchivo3
CosaFile
CPEjemplo1
CutEjemplo
DelMe
DelMe3
DirFile
Err3
File
File1
File2
File3
FileKill
HOLD
index2.html
index.html
index-s.html
KillIt
Leave
Leave2
LSComando
LSList
MacroArchivo
MBRRespalda
MBR=Respalda
MiArchivo
MiArchivo.Err
MiComando
NombreDeArchivo
NuevoHostName
OutTxt
RedirTxt
Res2
Resulto
robots.txt
S27.sh
SDA.BAK
SortEjemplo
Source
grep: sr0: Permission denied
TouchArchivo
UmaskPruebaArchivo
UmaskPruebaArchivo2
UniqEjemplo
UniqEjemploConLineasVacios
UniqEjemploMayusc
UniqEjemploMinusc
UniqSortEjemplo
WCEjemplo

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ grep  "1;32m" cdcommand
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  855 Jul 13 23:09 �[01;32mrsyncAlmastock*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 rrc  rrc   639 Dec 13  2011 �[01;32mrsyncBashClase*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  611 May 16  2012 �[01;32mrsyncBooks*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 rrc  rrc   618 Dec 13  2011 �[01;32mrsyncCClase*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  224 Dec 27  2011 �[01;32mrsyncClients*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  604 Jan  4  2012 �[01;32mrsyncCode*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  639 Aug  8 06:23 �[01;32mrsyncDocuments*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  743 Jun 10 15:55 �[01;32mrsyncGarcon*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  656 Jan  3  2012 �[01;32mrsynclccom*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 rrc  rrc  2588 May 22 12:29 �[01;32mrsynclcorg*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 rrc  rrc   295 Dec 13  2011 �[01;32mrsyncLinuxCabal*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root 2034 Dec 13  2011 �[01;32mrsyncMdk2010.2*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root 2006 Dec 13  2011 �[01;32mrsyncMdk2011*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  368 Jan 26  2013 �[01;32mrsyncMySQLBack*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  774 Jan 24  2012 �[01;32mrsyncPrestamosAbastos*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  103 Jan  4  2012 �[01;32mrsyncRRCMailFromMyrddin*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  257 Jan  4  2012 �[01;32mrsyncRRCMailTo*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  750 Sep 25  2012 �[01;32mrsyncWNSol*

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ grep -m 4 "1;32m" cdcommand
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  855 Jul 13 23:09 �[01;32mrsyncAlmastock*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 rrc  rrc   639 Dec 13  2011 �[01;32mrsyncBashClase*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  611 May 16  2012 �[01;32mrsyncBooks*
-rwxr-xr-x  1 rrc  rrc   618 Dec 13  2011 �[01;32mrsyncCCl

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ grep -m 4 -d skip "1;32m" *
cdcommand:-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  855 Jul 13 23:09 �[01;32mrsyncAlmastock*
cdcommand:-rwxr-xr-x  1 rrc  rrc   639 Dec 13  2011 �[01;32mrsyncBashClase*
cdcommand:-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  611 May 16  2012 �[01;32mrsyncBooks*
cdcommand:-rwxr-xr-x  1 rrc  rrc   618 Dec 13  2011 �[01;32mrsyncCClase*
grep: sr0: Permission denied

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ grep -m 4 -d skip --exclude=cdcommand "1;32m" *
grep: sr0: Permission denied

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ grep -c -d skip "1;32m" cdcommand
18

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ grep "Fecha" S27.sh*
Fecha=`date +"%Y%m%d"`
while( [ -f ${1}${Fecha}-${X}.tar.xz ] )
tar acvf  ${1}${Fecha}-${X}.tar.xz ${1}

[rrc@Llawyr ComandosDeLaTerminal]$ grep -v "Fecha" S27.sh*
X=0
do
  ((X++))
done

En mi servidor web quiero ver los direcciones de "usuarios@sistemas" sin repetición.

[root@www httpd]# cat access_log | grep -o '[^[:space:]]*@[^:]*[[:alpha:]][^:]*'  | sort -u
(support.voilabot@orange-ftgroup.com)"
(test@mgmt.mic)"
+info@netcraft.com)"
/ftp://ftp.linuxcabal.org/mailto:rrc@imat.com HTTP/1.1" 404 993 "-" "Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; Win32; WinHttp.WinHttpRequest.5)"
@ WhiteHat Team - www.whitehat.ro"
backend@getprismatic.com)"
crawler@alexa.com)"
crawler@netseer.com)"
crawler@unister.de)"
help@moz.com)"
noc@stumbleupon.com) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/12.0"
rogerbot-wherecat@moz.com)"
test@mgmt.mic"
webauth@cmcm.com"